All construction begins with geological works. Even a modest cottage should be solid and even, and for that, you not only need to draw your plan but can move the outline directly to the site. You can try to take out the axles in a small rectangular structure yourself. Can also teach The basics of geological knowledge to high school students. We describe in this article how to install axes easily
Necessary to Install Axes
-House projects with geological reference;
– Layout of the site with the outline of the building specified on it;
– Tape measure or compass.
Before setting off, it is necessary to level the plot’s surface as much as possible under one level. Dense stumps, remove debris remove vegetation. Pay special attention to cleaning all kinds of scrap iron. It is essential if you decide to make the breakdown yourself. You may have to use homemade equipment, which includes a compass. But if you can get sight or electronic theodolite or total station, it is best to do so.
There are big, big and intermediate channels. Start with the main ones. For residential or industrial facilities, these are the symmetrical axes of the building. The main axes determine the size of the structure, and the intermediate – the position of its parts. View information about the project you have. The design allows for geological preparation to transfer the outline of the building into the landscape. You could already have a calculation of properties, a reference to a geological condition and drawings in order. You have to figure out where and what will be built.
It is best to start demolishing a plot of land to build a house with the location of the principal axes. They are two lines perpendicular to each other that intersect where the building’s diagonals are. Find the distance of these points from the nearest corners and colon lines. They are marked on the plan and the ground if you build from the assigned project. Stand with the theodolite where you know your coordinates. Use the screws to point the device at the desired angle. The assistant is on the train at this time. He moves it until it matches the mark on the eyepiece. Mark the appropriate point with a letter and go to the next corner.
Use one of the axes opposite methods, depending on the location and shape of the building. The method of rectangular coordinates is used on smooth areas with a marked coordinate system. From the next corner of the grating, measure the distance to the projection corner of the house on this line and then the length of the house. Drive in the pins. Stand at one of the points, and set the goniometer at a right angle. The principle of using all such devices, from homemade goniometers to electronic theodolite, is the same. It is necessary to combine the signals either in the two slots of the gray machine or on the screen. Your assistant should move the staff to the appropriate location and mark the point with a pin. In the same way, all other corners of a rectangular building are transferred to the territory. Pull the cable between the clamps.
The method of angular serifs is used when something interferes with direct vision, or the building is on a hillside, for example. Calculate the angles as accurately as possible in advance. All other works are done in the same order as the first case. The intermediate axes are removed later when the foundation is already in place, and it is necessary to determine the position of the individual components of the structure.
When building a house, the deviation of the axes should not exceed 7 mm, so it is better to perform these tasks with the help of modern high-precision tools. But if you want to build, for example, a barn or other small rectangular building, you can use a simple goniometer. It is a circle divided by 360 degrees. A ball is attached to its center, and a long ruler is attached. At the edges of the ruler, glue 2 additional rulers up to the 90 ° angle, with a smaller length. The same windows are made at the same distance from their loose ends. Pull the vertical threads in the middle. Attach the ring firmly to the tripod and adjust it with a compass.
The venue layout should also have a grid. It uses a vertical line to obtain a homemade theodolite in a strictly horizontal position. This simple device works in the same way as any other theodolite, but its accuracy will be less. Nevertheless, such devices made it possible to create magnificent and durable buildings in perfect shape in ancient times.